Manganese is an essential mineral. Good sources of manganese include: instant oatmeal, pineapple, brown rice and pecan.1 The 100% Daily Value for Manganese (based on a 2000 kcal diet) is 2 mg,2 but it has been revised to 2.3 mg as of May 27, 2016.9 The 100% Daily Value for pregnant or lactating women is 2.6 mg, effective as of January 1st, 2020.9
- Manganese Gluconate: Manganese gluconate is prepared by combining a manganese compound, such as manganese sulfate, with gluconic acid, an organic acid produced by the fermentation of glucose from corn.
- Manganese Sulfate: Manganese sulfate is prepared by combining a manganese salt with sulfuric acid.
Major Health Benefits
Manganese is a constituent of many enzymes in the body, including the antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD).3 Manganese assists in the formation of connective tissue and bone.3 Manganese is also important for the metabolism of amino acids, carbohydrates, and cholesterol.3,4 Manganese may also contribute to wound healing because it is involved in collagen synthesis in humans.5
The Tolerable Upper Intake Level (UL) of Manganese (for adults) is 11 mg per day.6 Excessive intake of manganese can negatively affect the motor system by producing symptoms similar to Parkinson’s disease.7,8
Higdon, J. Manganese. Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University. 2001. (Reviewed by Aschner, M. in 2010) (Food Sources). http://lpi.oregonstate.edu/mic/minerals/manganese Accessed 7/2015.
US Food and Drug Administration. Guidance for Industry: A Food Labeling Guide (14. Appendix F: Calculate the Percent Daily Value for the Appropriate Nutrients). US Department of Health and Human Services. 2013 January. http://www.fda.gov/Food/GuidanceRegulation/GuidanceDocumentsRegulatoryInformation/LabelingNutrition/ucm064928.htm
European Food Safety Authority. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to manganese and protection of DNA, proteins and lipids from oxidative damage, maintenance of bone, energy-yielding metabolism, and cognitive function. EFSA Journal 2009;7(9):1217; 2010; 8(10): 1808. https://efsa.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.2903/j.efsa.2010.1808
Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. The National Academic Press. 2001 (pp. 394) https://www.nap.edu/read/10026/chapter/12
Higdon, J. Manganese. Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University. 2001. (Reviewed by Aschner, M. in 2010) (Wound Healing) https://lpi.oregonstate.edu/mic/minerals/manganese#wound-healing-function
Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs): Tolerable Upper Intake Levels, Elements. Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine, The National Academic Press. 2001. (Table)
Aschner M, Dorman DC. Manganese: pharmacokinetics and molecular mechanisms of brain uptake. Toxicol Rev. 2006;25(3):147-54. Review. PubMed PMID: 17192121.
Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Dietary Reference Intakes for Vitamin A, Vitamin K, Arsenic, Boron, Chromium, Copper, Iodine, Iron, Manganese, Molybdenum, Nickel, Silicon, Vanadium, and Zinc. The National Academic Press. 2001. (pp. 409/411) https://www.nap.edu/read/10026/chapter/12
US Food and Drug Administration. Food Labeling: Revision of the Nutrition and Supplement Facts Labels. US Department of Health and Human Services. Federal Register / Vol. 81, No. 103, p. 33982 / May 27, 2016. https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/