Magnesium is an essential mineral. Good food sources of magnesium include: almonds, tree nuts, fortified cereals, spinach, Swiss chard, and other green, leafy vegetables.1 The 100% Daily Value for Magnesium (based on a 2000 kcal diet) is 400 mg,2 but it has been revised to 420 mg as of May 27, 2016.8 The 100% Daily Value for pregnant or lactating women is 400 mg, effective as of January 1st, 2020.8
- Magnesium Carbonate: Magnesium carbonate powder is prepared from naturally occurring dolomite and saltwater brine.
- Magnesium Citrate: Magnesium citrate is prepared by combining magnesium salt with citric acid, an organic acid.
- Magnesium Gluconate: Magnesium gluconate is prepared by combining a magnesium salt with gluconic acid, an organic acid produced by the fermentation of glucose from corn.
- Magnesium Oxide: Magnesium Oxide is a powder made by combining a magnesium chloride solution with calcium oxide.
Major Health Benefits
Magnesium works with calcium to help muscles contract and relax as well as in the transmission of nerve impulses, where it contributes to normal heart function and nervous system function.3,4 As a component of many enzymes in the body, magnesium plays an important role in the synthesis of proteins, the maintenance of genetic material (DNA, RNA) within cells, and cell divisions. Magnesium is also an important constituent of teeth, bone, and muscle.3,4,5 Adequate Magnesium consumption aids in maintaining normal blood glucose and blood pressure levels.5 Magnesium is a key component for the metabolism or carbohydrates and fats.5,6
Excessive intake of magnesium may cause diarrhea most likely in individuals taking laxatives containing Magnesium.7
Higdon, J. Magnesium. Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University. 2001. (Reviewed by Volpe, SL. in 2014) (Food Sources). http://lpi.oregonstate.edu/mic/minerals/magnesium Accessed 7/2015.
US Food and Drug Administration. Guidance for Industry: A Food Labeling Guide (14. Appendix F: Calculate the Percent Daily Value for the Appropriate Nutrients). US Department of Health and Human Services. 2013 January. http://www.fda.gov/Food/GuidanceRegulation/GuidanceDocumentsRegulatoryInformation/LabelingNutrition/ucm064928.htm
European Food Safety Authority. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to magnesium and electrolyte balance, energy-yielding metabolism neurotransmission and muscle contraction including heart muscle, cell division, maintenance of bone, maintenance of teeth, blood coagulation, and protein synthesis. EFSA Journal 2009; 7(9): 1216. https://efsa.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.2903/j.efsa.2009.1216
European Food Safety Authority. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to magnesium and “hormonal health”, reduction of tiredness and fatigue, contribution to normal psychological functions, maintenance of normal blood glucose concentrations, maintenance of normal blood pressure, protection of DNA, proteins and lipids from oxidative damage, maintenance of normal function of the immune system, maintenance of normal blood pressure during pregnancy, resistance to mental stress, reduction of gastric acid levels, maintenance of normal fat metabolism and maintenance of normal muscle contractions. EFSA Journal 2010;8(10)1807. https://efsa.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.2903/j.efsa.2010.1807
Higdon, J. Magnesium. Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University. 2001. (Reviewed by Volpe, SL. in 2014) (Summary) https://lpi.oregonstate.edu/mic/minerals/magnesium#summary
Higdon, J. Magnesium. Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University. 2001. (Reviewed by Volpe, SL. in 2014) (Energy Production) https://lpi.oregonstate.edu/mic/minerals/magnesium#energy-production
Higdon, J. Magnesium. Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University. 2001. (Reviewed by Volpe, SL. in 2014) (Safety) https://lpi.oregonstate.edu/mic/minerals/magnesium#safety
US Food and Drug Administration. Food Labeling: Revision of the Nutrition and Supplement Facts Labels. US Department of Health and Human Services. Federal Register / Vol. 81, No. 103, p. 33982 / May 27, 2016. https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/