Parts of Africa and the Middle East have more than sufficient sunlight exposure to maintain healthy vitamin D status in their population. Assessment of vitamin D status in these populations, though, demonstrates the difficulty in obtaining sufficient vitamin D levels. As high as 80 percent of people, in some areas, fall short of recommended blood levels of vitamin D. This study underscores the importance of clothing, sun-avoidance, skin color, and dietary factors influencing vitamin D levels.

Green RJ, Samy G, Miqdady MS, et al. Vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency in Africa and the Middle East, despite year-round sunny days. S Afr Med J. 2015 Jul;105(7):603-5. PMID: 26447257.