Why was this study done?

Dehydration is thought to play an important role in the management of fatigue for athletes. This study was designed to help understand the role of rehydration formulas, their relationship to plasma volume, and fatigue.

What did the study find?

The formula (AA) provided the larger pre-exercise volume, greater acid-buffering, and highest citrate concentration seemed to forestall fatigue in athletes the best.

Pre-exercise hypervolemia and cycle ergometer endurance in men
Authors: Greenleaf JE, Looft-Wilson R, Wisherd JL, McKenzie MA, Jensen CD, Whittam JH. Biol Sport. 1997;14(2):103-14.
PubMed Citation PMID: 11540419.

Earlier Report:

Drink Composition and Cycle-Ergometer Endurance in Men: Carbohydrate, Na+,Osmolality.
Authors: Greenleaf J, et al.
NASA Tech Memo, 1996. November: p. 46-50.PDF Manuscript: NASA Tech Memo, 1996.