Thiamin (also called vitamin B1) is an essential water-soluble vitamin. Good food sources of thiamin include: whole-grain cereals, legumes, nuts, lean pork, and yeast.1
The 100% Daily Value of Thiamin (based on a 2,000 kcal diet) is 1.5 milligrams (mg),2 but it has been revised to 1.2 milligrams (mg) as of May 27, 2016.7 The 100% Daily Value for pregnant or lactating women is 1.4 mg, effective as of January 1st, 2020.7
- Thiamin Hydrochloride: Thiamin hydrochloride is the hydrochloride salt of thiamin and is a highly water-soluble form. It is formulated by combining pyrimidine and thiazole.
- Thiamin Mononitrate: Thiamin mononitrate is the mononitrate salt of thiamin. This form of thiamin is produced by dissolving thiamin hydrochloride in an alkaline solution and reconstituting it with nitric acid.
Major Health Benefits
Thiamin is required for the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, fats, and nucleic acids. Thiamin plays a role in maintaining a normal nervous system, psychological function, and cardiac function.3,4
Deficiency of thiamin may lead to Wernicke’s encephalopathy, a neurological syndrome consisting of mental confusion, inability to voluntarily move and coordinate muscles, and paralysis of one or more muscles that direct eye movement.5 Deficiency may also lead to Beriberi, a disease that negatively affects the nervous, muscular, cardiovascular, and gastrointestinal (GI) systems.6
Higdon, J. Thiamin. Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University. 2002. (Reviewed by Bates, C in 2013) (Food Sources). http://lpi.oregonstate.edu/mic/vitamins/thiamin Accessed 7/15.
US Food and Drug Administration. Guidance for Industry: A Food Labeling Guide (14. Appendix F: Calculate the Percent Daily Value for the Appropriate Nutrients). US Department of Health and Human Services. 2013 January. http://www.fda.gov/Food/GuidanceRegulation/GuidanceDocumentsRegulatoryInformation/LabelingNutrition/ucm064928.htm
European Food Safety Authority. Scientific Opinion on substantiation of health claims related to thiamine and energy-yielding metabolism, cardiac function, function of the nervous system, maintenance of bone, maintenance of teeth, maintenance of hair, maintenance of nails, maintenance of skin. EFSA Journal 2009;7(9):1222. https://efsa.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.2903/j.efsa.2009.1222
European Food Safety Authority. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to thiamin and reduction of tiredness and fatigue and contribution to normal psychological functions. EFSA Journal 2010;8(10):1755. https://efsa.onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/epdf/10.2903/j.efsa.2010.1755
Sequeira Lopes da Silva JT, Almaraz Velarde R, Olgado Ferrero F, Robles Marcos M, Pérez Civantos D, Ramírez Moreno JM, Luengo Pérez LM. Wernicke’s encephalopathy induced by total parental nutrition. Nutr Hosp. 2010 Nov-Dec;25(6):1034-6. PMID: 21519777.
Higdon, J. Thiamin. Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University. 2002. (Reviewed by Bates, C in 2013) (Deficiency)
US Food and Drug Administration. Food Labeling: Revision of the Nutrition and Supplement Facts Labels. US Department of Health and Human Services. Federal Register / Vol. 81, No. 103, p. 33982 / May 27, 2016. https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/