Pyridoxine

Pyridoxine (vitamin B6) is an essential water-soluble B vitamin. Good food sources of pyridoxine include poultry, salmon, baked potato, avocado, bananas, and fortified breakfast cereals.1

The 100% Daily Value for Vitamin B6 (based on 2,000 kcal diet) is 2 mg, but it has been revised to 1.7 mg as of May 27, 2016.The 100% Daily Value for pregnant or lactating women is 2 mg, effective as of July 26, 2018.8

Forms

  • Pyridoxine Hydrochloride: Pyridoxine hydrochloride is a bioavailable form of the water-soluble B vitamin pyridoxine.

Major Health Benefits

Pyridoxine is involved in the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats, and proteins. Pyridoxine is also involved in the manufacture of enzymes, hormones, hemoglobin, nucleic acid and neurotransmitters, as well as the amino acid, cysteine. Adequate consumption of Pyridoxine has been found to reduce fatigue, tiredness, and lower blood homocysteine levels;3 elevated homocysteine level in the blood is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Pyridoxine also helps to maintain a normal psychological function, immune system, and nervous system.3,4

Cautions

The recommended maximum amount (Tolerable Upper Level) of Vitamin B6 taken in one day should not exceed 100 mg.5 Chronic excess intake of Vitamin B6 may damage the sensory (peripheral) nervous system, which relays information from the brain and spinal cord (central nervous system) to the rest of the body.6 The damage onto the sensory nervous system (peripheral neuropathy) may cause weakness of muscles and tingling or prickling sensations in the body.7

References

  1. Higdon, J. Vitamin B6. Linus Pauling Institute, Oregon State University. 2000. (Reviewed by Gregory, JF in 2014) (Food Sources) http://lpi.oregonstate.edu/mic/vitamins/vitamin-B6 Accessed 5/2015.
  2. US Food and Drug Administration. Guidance for Industry: A Food Labeling Guide (14. Appendix F: Calculate the Percent Daily Value for the Appropriate Nutrients). US Department of Health and Human Services. 2013 January. http://www.fda.gov/Food/GuidanceRegulation/GuidanceDocumentsRegulatoryInformation/LabelingNutrition/ucm064928.htm
  3. European Food Safety Authority. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to vitamin B6 and contribution to normal homocysteine metabolism, maintenance of normal bone, maintenance of normal teeth, maintenance of normal hair, maintenance of normal skin, maintenance of normal nails, contribution to normal energy-yielding metabolism, contribution to normal psychological functions, reduction of tiredness and fatigue, and contribution to normal cysteine synthesis. EFSA Journal 2010;8(10):1759.
  4. European Food Safety Authority. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to vitamin B6 and protein and glycogen metabolism, function of the nervous system, red blood cell formation, function of the immune system, regulation of hormonal activity and mental performance. EFSA Journal 2009;7(9):1225.
  5. Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Vitamin B6. Dietary Reference Intakes: Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington D.C.: National Academy Press; 1998: 123-149. (pp. 150)
  6. Food and Nutrition Board, Institute of Medicine. Vitamin B6. Dietary Reference Intakes: Thiamin, Riboflavin, Niacin, Vitamin B6, Vitamin B12, Pantothenic Acid, Biotin, and Choline. Washington D.C.: National Academy Press; 1998: 123-149. (pp. 182)
  7. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke. Peripheral Neuropathy Fact Sheet. National Institutes of Health. 2014 December. http://www.ninds.nih.gov/disorders/peripheralneuropathy/detail_peripheralneuropathy.htm
  8. US Food and Drug Administration. Food Labeling: Revision of the Nutrition and Supplement Facts Labels. US Department of Health and Human Services. Federal Register / Vol. 81, No. 103, p. 33982 / May 27, 2016. https://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/FR-2016-05-27/pdf/2016-11867.pdf